Native-born writers who published their work in the 1940s and 1950s, often called the "War of Independence generation," brought a sabra mentality and culture to their writing. According to them, they were forced to give up or conceal their Jewish Masoret and their diaspora heritage and culture, which they brought from their diaspora countries, and to adopt the new secular "Sabra" culture. Israeli chess teams won the silver medal at the 2008 Chess Olympiad and the bronze medal at the 2010 Chess Olympiad. [65], Following the expulsion from Spain and Portugal many Jews settled in the Ottoman Empire including Palestine, contributing greatly to the culture of the Jewish community, especially in literature, poetry, philosophy and mysticism. Today cultural diversity is being celebrated; many speak several languages, continue to eat the food of their cultural origins, and have mixed outlooks. Such familial ties served as a means for Israelites to interact with one another, exchange goods, and settle or prevent conflicts. The Maccabiah Games, an Olympic-style event for Jewish athletes, was inaugurated in the 1930s, and has been held in Israel every four years since then. [91] Research into robotics first began in the late 1970s, has resulted in the production of robots designed to perform a wide variety of computer aided manufacturing tasks, including diamond polishing, welding, packing, and building. Israel has 100 surf bathing beaches, guarded by professional lifeguards. Like Philo,[39] who saw in the Hebrew construction of the infinitive with the finite form of the same verb and in certain particles (adverbs, prepositions, etc.) In safed he authored Shulchan Aruch, the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism. Early lessons focused on the Hebrew Bible, and as the boys got older, they progressed unto Mishnah and then Talmud. Other notable Israeli philosophers include Avishai Margalit, Hugo Bergmann, Yehoshua Bar-Hillel, Pinchas Lapide, Israel Eldad and Judea Pearl. In the 1950s, these movements were categorized in three groups: Zionist youth groups promoting social ideals and the importance of agricultural and communal settlement; working youth promoting educational goals and occupational advancement; and recreational groups with a strong emphasis on sports and leisure-time activities.[121]. The early activity in science in ancient Israel can be found in the Hebrew Bible where some of the books contain descriptions of the physical world. "Medieval Philosophy and the Classical Tradition: In Islam, Judaism and Christianity" by John Inglis, Page 3, "Introduction to Philosophy" by Dr. Tom Kerns. "[46] This, in turn, supports Raz's argument for legal positivism, in particular "the sources thesis," "the idea that an adequate test for the existence and content of law must be based only on social facts, and not on moral arguments.". [13] The Hebrew Bible, authored by Jews in the Land of Israel from the 8th to the 2nd century BCE,[14] is a corner stone of Western civilization. The 1968 Summer Paralympics were hosted by Israel. After 1948, two major motifs were the Holocaust and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Some critics[who?] Fruits and vegetables had to be eaten as they ripened and before they spoiled. The ordinary ancient Israelite was mainly one of the ordinary ancient Israelite mythology, literature, and... Cosmology provides sporadic glimpses that may be stitched together to form a biblical impression of the film! Mythology, literature, philosophy and poetry New Christian religion throughout the world and traditions of European.... 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